1988 Arctic Cooperation Agreement
The Northwest Passage was also a contentious point at the summit. In a speech on Monday, Pompeo called Canada`s assertion of the Northwest Passage “illegitimate,” a language criticized for not reflecting the 1988 Arctic Cooperation Agreement, which allows Canada and the United States to continue to accept disagreement on the issue. If Iceland joins the European Union, the EU will increase its influence on the Arctic and could gain permanent observer status in the Arctic Council. The northern dimension policy of the European Union, launched in the late 1990s, aimed to address issues relating to Western Russia and to strengthen general cooperation between the EU, Iceland and Norway. Since then, it has become a multilateral and egalitarian partnership between the EU, Iceland, Norway and Russia. Canada and the United States are observers of the partnership. Three members of the Nordic Council joined the EU (Denmark in 1973 and Sweden and Finland in 1995). The European Union`s request to become a “permanent observer” at the Arctic Council was blocked by Canada in 2009 in response to the European Union embargo on seal products.  The CPAR is a parliamentary body composed of delegations appointed by the national parliaments of the Arctic states (Canada, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Russia, Sweden and the United States) and the European Parliament. Groups of indigenous peoples also participate in the conference as permanent participants and observers. The conference meets every two years, the last time on 7 June 2010 in Oslo. Between conferences, parliamentary cooperation in the Arctic will be continued by a standing committee of Arctic parliamentarians, which was established in 1994.
The U.S. Department of State`s Office of Ocean and Polar Affairs (OPA) is part of the State Department`s Office of Ocean and International Environmental and Scientific Affairs (OES). OPA is responsible for formulating and implementing U.S. policy on international issues related to the oceans, the Arctic and Antarctic. Recognising the long history of cooperation between the United States and Canada, including NATO, NORAD, the 1988 Arctic Cooperation Agreement and the Arctic Council; The agreement allows the United States to characterize the crossing as an international waterway, while Canada can say that it is part of Canadian territory. Recognition of obligations under land claim agreements with indigenous peoples; On April 29, 2009, Arctic Council ministers adopted a task force in Tromsé, Norway, to create an International Search and Rescue Instrument (SAR) for the Arctic until the next meeting in 2011.   On May 12, 2011, in Nuuk, Greenland, ministers signed a Search-Rescue Agreement, the Arctic Council`s first legal treaty. “My view in this and President Trump is what we should put all our focus on my results,” he said.
“We can call it what we want, but I shared some of the data in the speech. The United States does this when it comes to reducing its CO2. I mean, compare it to China, compare it to Russia, I mean, compare it to a lot of European nations, each of which signed the Paris Agreement. At the Arctic Council Ministerial Meeting on April 24, 2015, a task force on Arctic marine cooperation was established to examine future needs for cooperation in Arctic maritime issues.  Arctic cooperation and policy are partly coordinated by the Arctic Council, made up of the eight Arctic nations: the United States of America, Canada, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Russia and Denmark, along with Greenland and the Faroe Islands.  The dominant power in Arctic policy is found in the executive offices, legislative bodies and implementing bodies of the eight Arctic nations and, to a lesser extent, in other countries such as Britain, Germany, the European Union and China.